www.eurozoneinfo.eu

Informative euro site:



C O N T E N T S :           (Click on any topic or scroll down. Press the HOME-key to return to the contents-menu.)


European Union:

The 28 countries of the EU: The Netherlands, Germany, France, Austria, Luxembourg, Ireland, Portugal, Italy, Belgium, Finland, Spain, Denmark, Greece, Great-Britain, Sweden, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia.

EU expansion:

EU-applicants (Turkey, Macedonia, Iceland, Serbia, Albania and Montenegro) will join the European Union on a later date. The precise details of this next expansion are not known and depend on reforms in the applicant countries. This list of applicants is taken from the official EU-site and represents the most advanced applicants. Other European countries are in various stages of EU-application. Also see the EU-expansion on the map.

12 Stars for 28 States in the flag of European Union:

Here are some reasons why in the flag of EU the number of stars did not become 28 when the States became 28. The 12 stars do not represent 12 countries, but rather 12 as some kind of representation of perfection / unity. One cannot make comparisons with the US flag as the cultural and historical environment is very different ( and flags do reflect these conditions ). As everyone knows the flag of the Council of Europe is the same, blue with twelve stars, and its members are a lot more than 12.

US add a star in the canton for each new state, and added a new stripe for each of the first two new states, Vermont and Kentucky. The US flag had fifteen stars and fifteen stripes from 1795 to 1818. When it became clear that the nation would continue to grow, the stripes were reduced to the original thirteen, but the stars continued to multiply. From The Otago Daily Times ( NZ ) on Monday Jan. 9th 1995 « No need to Change the Flag » ( by Robert J. Wielaard )

Brussels ( AP ) - It adorns car license plates in some of the 12 European Union nations and greets travelers at border points from Athens to Amsterdam to the Azores. But 40 years after it was created, the European flag and its twelve gold stars on a field of blue remain a source of confusion. Contrary to popular belief, its stars do not represent the current 27 members of the European Union. So, with new nations joining the EU, not a single star will be added to the European flag.

The European flag was designed after a five-year squabble, starting in 1950. Bureaucrats studied more than 100 designs - rings, crosses, stars, suns, triangles - sent in by artists, heraldry experts and Euro-enthusiasts. In 1953, a circle of stars was put on a short list by the Council of Europe ( the first post-war organization for European integration ). Two more years were needed to pick a blue background.

The Council had 15 members in 1955, but Germany ( FRG ) vetoed 15 stars since one was for the Saarland region, then under French control. It wanted 14 stars, but France disagreed because it excluded Saarland, which did not rejoin Germany until 1957. No-one liked the superstitious number 13, but 12 was found to hold great Judeo-Christian symbolism ( through the 12 tribes and 12 apostles ). Also, in Greek mythology, Hercules gained immortality through 12 labours.

By 1957 the Council of Europe had 27 members. The more powerful organization ( EU or European Union, as it is now known ), founded that year by six nations, now has 28 members. More are waiting in the wings.

The difficulty in picking a European flag was not an isolated bout of ambivalence over Euro-symbols. The Council of Europe spent eight years selecting a European anthem. In 1972 it picked Ode to Joy from Beethoven's Symphony no. 9, which has since been adopted by the EU. In the 1980s, the EU spent seven years arguing over the colour of the European passport, eventually picking "Bishop Red". Ironically, this does not show the European flag or its 12-star logo, but the national emblems of each issuing nation.

The European nations have also had trouble choosing a common holiday, so now there are two: May 5 and May 9. The Council of Europe uses the former because on that date in 1949 Britain's Sir Winston Churchill declared in a speech in Zurich : « We must build a United States of Europe ». The EU calls May 9 Robert Schuman Day in honour of the French statesman who was a key founder of the union.


Economic & Monetary Union:

The 18 EMU countries: The Netherlands, Germany, France, Austria, Luxembourg, Ireland, Portugal, Italy, Belgium, Finland, Spain, Greece, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

Denmark, Sweden and the UK chose not to join yet. They may only join after they meet certain criteria. (Among others, their currency must be linked to the euro for 2 years. The Danish Krona is allready linked).

The EMU explained:

The EMU-countries have adopted a new single currency since 1999-2002. The euro (symbol: € or EUR)

On €-day (E-day) (January 1st 2002) all the euro coins and bills came into use in all the EMU countries.
The national currencies will be in use together with the euro for a transitional period. This period is different for every EMU-country. Please see the chapter on the Timetable for the national currencies for details.

The euro coins have a common European side and 16 different national sides, 13 of which belonging to the EMU-countries and 3 to European mini-states. Please see the chapter on Mini-states and the euro for details. All the coins are legal tender in all the EMU-countries and the ministates using them and cannot be refused. There are special 2 euro commemorative coins issued by certain member states (once a year at the most). These are also legal tender throughout the eurozone and cannot be refused! Other denominations of national commemorative euro coins exist (for example the French quarter euro), but these are NOT legal tender throughout the eurozone and can therefore be refused, especially by tourists.

The euro banknotes all have the same design. See pictures of the coins and banknotes below.


Mini-states and the euro:

San Marino Vatican Monaco Andorra

The euro is legal tender in the following European mini-states:

  • San Marino
  • Vatican
  • Monaco
  • Andorra
  • San Marino, the Vatican and Monaco have their own national side on their euro-coins.
    The euro-coins from these countries are all accepted in the entire eurozone.
    Andorra has it's own euro-coins since 2014 after permission was granted.
    The coins are quite rare though, because of their limited production!

    These states have no influence in the ECB or any monetary matters.

    In the mini-state Liechtenstein the Swiss Franc is, and will be, legal tender.

    Stamps and the euro:

    Although the eurozone countries share a currency, stamps are still a national matter. Therefore you cannot for instance use a euro denominated German stamp for your mail in Spain. So for you postal needs do not use another countries stamps.


    On the map:

    Click here to see the map with all countries named.

    Irrevocably fixed conversion rates between the euro and EMU national currencies:

    Austrian Shilling       
    Belgian Franc       
    German Mark       
    Spanish Peseta       
    Finnish Markka       
    French Franc       
    Irish Punt       
    Italian Lira       
    Luxembourg Franc       
    Dutch Guilder       
    Portuguese Escudo       
    Greek Drachma       
    Slovenian Tolar       
    Maltese Lira       
    Cyprus Pound       
    Slovak Koruna       
    Estonian Kroon       
    Latvian Lat       
    Lithuanian Litas       
    € 1,00 = ATS 13,7603
    € 1,00 = BEF 40,3399
    € 1,00 = DEM 1,95583
    € 1,00 = ESP 166,386
    € 1,00 = FIM 5,94573
    € 1,00 = FRF 6,55957
    € 1,00 = IEP 0,787564
    € 1,00 = ITL 1936,27
    € 1,00 = LUF 40,3399
    € 1,00 = NLG 2,20371
    € 1,00 = PTE 200,482
    € 1,00 = GRD 340,750
    € 1,00 = SIT 239,640
    € 1,00 = MTL 0,429300
    € 1,00 = CYP 0,585274
    € 1,00 = SKK 30,1260
    € 1,00 = EEK 15,6466
    € 1,00 = LVL 0,702804
    € 1,00 = LTL 3,4528

    Timetable for the national currencies:

    Countries End of legal tender status  
    for national currencies
    Limit for exchange
    of national currencies by
    the National Central Banks
    Germany 31-Dec-2001
    The DEM was accepted in
    shops untill 28 February 2002.
    coins: indefinite
    banknotes: indefinite
    the Netherlands 28-Jan-2002 coins: 1-Jan-2007
    banknotes: 1-Jan-2032
    Ireland 9-Feb-2002 coins: indefinite
    banknotes: indefinite
    France 17-Feb-2002 coins: 17-Feb-2005
    banknotes: 17-Feb-2012
    Slovenia 14-Jan-2007 coins: 31-Dec-2016
    banknotes: indefinite
    Austria
     
    Belgium
     
    Finland
     
    Greece
     
    Italy
     
    Luxembourg
     
    Portugal
     
    Spain
     
    28-Feb-2002 coins: indefinite
    banknotes: indefinite
    coins: 31-Dec-2004
    banknotes: indefinite
    coins: 28-Feb-2012
    banknotes: 28-Feb-2012
    coins: 28-Feb-2004
    banknotes: 28-Feb-2012
    coins: 28-Feb-2012
    banknotes: 28-Feb-2012
    coins: 31-Dec-2004
    banknotes: 28-Feb-2012
    coins: 31-Dec-2002

    banknotes: 28-Feb-2022
    coins: indefinite
    banknotes: indefinite
    Cyprus 31-Jan-2008 coins: 31-Dec-2009
    banknotes: 31-Dec-2017
    Malta 31-Jan-2008 coins: 1-Feb-2010
    banknotes: 31-Jan-2018
    Slovakia 16-Jan-2009 coins: 30-Jun-2009
    banknotes: 31-Dec-2009
    Estonia 14-Jan-2011 coins: indefinite
    banknotes: indefinite
    Latvia 14-Jan-2014 coins: indefinite
    banknotes: indefinite
    Lithuania 14-Jan-2015 coins: indefinite
    banknotes: indefinite


    Download European symbols and information:

  • If you have a soundcard you should hear the EU-anthem. Make sure your browser is
       configured to play background music! Refresh the site to hear it again or download it.
  • To download the EU-anthem rightclick on the PLAY button and choose 'Save Target As'
        from the popup-menu:
                    EU-anthem as a MID-file (4 kb)           EU-anthem as a WAV-file (470 kb)
  • To download any picture on this website, rightclick on it and choose 'Save Picture As'
        from the popup-menu:

  • Basic EU/EMU information is available as a PDF-document in 3 languages.
       This Adobe Acrobat file also contains all the coins and banknote-images as shown below.
       To download, rightclick on your language button (flag) and choose 'Save Target As' from
        the popup-menu:
            English (1 Mb)       Dutch (1 Mb)       Polish (1 Mb)
              To open PDF-files you may need to download the free Acrobat Reader from www.adobe.com.
  • Desktop wallpapers with euro-coins:
       To download the desktop wallpaper rightclick on the thumbnail-image and select
        "Save Target As" from the popup menu:
       800x600 (62kb)   800x600 (77kb)
       800x600 (185kb)  800x600 (76kb)


    Specifications of the EU-flag:

    Click here to see the european flag without specifications


    Banknotes:

    In 2013 the first of the new design banknotes started to appear. They are being phased in starting with the lowest denomination. The new banknotes have more security features.


    Banknote design information:

    All seven denominations as drawn by Mr. Robert Kalina, are typical of the different European artistic periods:
        5 euro     Classical
      10 euro     Romanesque
      20 euro     Gothic
      50 euro     Renaissance
    100 euro     Baroque and Rococo
    200 euro     Iron and glass architecture
    500 euro     Modern 20th century architecture

    They do not represent any existing monuments.
    Windows and gateways dominate the front side of each banknote as symbols of the spirit of openness and cooperation in the EU.
    The reverse side of each banknote features a bridge from a particular age, a metaphor for communication among the people of Europe and between Europe and the rest of the world.

    Other elements of the designs include:

    • The flag of the European Union
    • The name of the currency in the Roman and Greek alphabets
    • The initials of the European Central Bank in their official language variants
    • The copyright (©) symbol to indicate the copyright protection
    • The signature of the President of the ECB.

    Serial number hints at country of origin:
    Every banknote has a serial number consisting of 1 letter and 11 digits.
    A serial code looks like X01234567890 printed in black on the side which also features the map of Europe.
    The letter can (for now) be linked to the country where the banknote was produced. The letters, when sorted in reverse alphabetical order starting with the letter Z, give al list of countries generally in alfabetical order when the name of each country is in it's official language.

          Z   Belgium
          Y   Greece
          X   Germany
          W   Denmark *
          V   Spain
          U   France
          T   Ireland
          S   Italy
          R   Luxembourg
          P   The Netherlands
          N   Austria
          M   Portugal
          L   Finland
          K   Sweden *
          J   United Kingdom *
          H   Slovenia (unconfirmed letter. the country will not produce banknotes for now)

    * = For the EU countries outside of the eurozone letters seem to have been reserved.
    In future individual eurozone countries will produce only one banknote value each. Then the value of the banknote will be the indication of the country of origin (together with the date).


    Coins:

    Common European front (before and after expansion)

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Netherlands

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Germany

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    France

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Austria

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Luxembourg

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Ireland

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Portugal

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Italy

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Belgium

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Finland

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Spain

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Greece

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Slovenia

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Cyprus

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Malta

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Slovakia

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Estonia

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Latvia

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Lithuania

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    San Marino

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Vatican

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Monaco

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Andorra

    €0.01

    €0.02

    €0.05

    €0.10

    €0.20

    €0.50

    €1.00

    €2.00

    Any colour difference between the national sides is due to a difference in source of the image.



    Commemorative 2 euro coins:

    Common European front

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016


    Netherlands

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013


    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016


    Germany

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013


    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016



    France

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013


    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016




    Austria

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016


    Luxembourg

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013


    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016




    Ireland

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016


    Portugal

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016




    Italy

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013


    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016




    Belgium

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016



    Finland

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013


    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016




    Spain

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016



    Greece

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013


    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016



    Slovenia

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016


    Cyprus

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016


    Malta

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016




    Slovakia

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016


    Estonia

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016


    Latvia

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016



    Lithuania

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016


    San Marino

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016




    Vatican

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013


    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016


    Monaco

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016


    Andorra

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2007-Rome

    2008

    2009

    2009-EMU

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2012-EURO

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2015-flag

    2016

    Any colour difference between the national sides is due to a difference in source of the image.


    Coin design information:

    Common European side:
    The European side of the coins was designed by Luc Luycx of the Royal Belgian Mint and depicts a map of the European Union against a background of parallel lines linking the 12 stars of the European Union flag.
    These designs show variations of the map of Europe. After the EU-expansion the maps not showing the new members will be replaced by a new common European side. Due to production cycles some countries have been permitted to use the old common side for the normal coins in 2007. All 2 euro commemoratives from 2007 onwards have the new common side.

    The 1 and 2 euro coins show a united Europe without frontiers. After the expansion the new design shows a larger Europe as a whole.
    The 10, 20 and 50 cent coins depict Europe as a group of individual nations. After the expansion the new design shows a larger Europe as a whole.
    The 1, 2 and 5 cent coins show Europe’s place in the world.


    Commemorative coins
    2 euro coins: Each member state of the eurozone can issue a €2 commemorative coin once a year. These coins have the same features and properties and the same common side as normal €2 coins. What makes them different is their commemorative design on the national side.
    Only the €2 denomination can be used for commemorative coins that are legal tender throughout the euro area, that means they can be used – and must be accepted – just like any other euro coin.


    2007 Rome 2 euro coins: The anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome in 2002 will be celebrated on 25 March 2007. The eurozone countries have decided to mark the occasion by jointly issuing this commemorative coin.
    The Treaty of Rome established the European Economic Community and ultimately led to the introduction of the euro in 1999 and euro banknotes and coins in 2002.
    The coin shows the Treaty document signed by the six founding countries on a background evocating the paving (designed by Michelangelo) of the Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome, where the signing took place on 25 March 1957.

    Coin features:
        (1) ‘Treaty of Rome 50 years’
        (2) ‘EUROPE’
        (3) ‘the name of the issuing country’

    These features appear in the respective languages of the euro area or in Latin. Thus, the legend differs from country to country, but the image is the same.

    The texts (1), (2) and (3) are:
        Belgium: PACTVM ROMANVM, QVINQVAGENARIVM, EUROPA/E, BELGIQUE - BELGIË - BELGIEN
        Germany: ROMISCHE VERTRAGE, 50 JAHRE, EUROPA, BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND
        Finland: ROOMAN SOPIMUS, 50 V, EUROOPPA, SUOMI - FINLAND
        France: TRAITE DE ROME, 50 ANS, EUROPE, REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE
        Greece: ΣΥΝΘΗΚΗ ΤΗΣ ΡΩΜΗΣ, 50 ΧΡΟΝΙΑ, ΕΥΡΩΠΗ, ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ  
        Ireland: CONRADH NA RÓIMHE, 50 BLIAIN, AN EORAIP, ÉIRE
        Italy: TRATTATI DI ROMA, 50° ANNIVERSARIO, EUROPA, REPUBBLICA ITALIANA
        Luxembourg: TRAITE DE ROME, 50 ANS, EUROPE, LETZEBUERG
        Netherlands: VERDRAG VAN ROME, 50 JAAR, EUROPA, KONINKRIJK DER NEDERLANDEN
        Austria: VERTRAG VON ROM, 50 JAHRE, EUROPA, REPUBLIK OSTERREICH
        Portugal: TRATADO DE ROMA, 50 ANOS, EUROPA, PORTUGAL
        Spain: TRATADO DE ROMA, 50 ANOS, ESPANA
        Slovenia: RIMSKA POGODBA 50 LET, EVROPA, REPUBLIKA SLOVENIJA


    2009 EMU 2 euro coins: 10th anniversary of Economic and Monetary Union. The eurozone countries have decided to mark the occasion by jointly issuing this commemorative coin. The coin shows a stick figure which merges into the € symbol. It seeks to convey the idea of the single currency and, by extension, Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) being the latest step in Europe’s long history of trade and economic integration.

    Coin features:
        ‘EMU 1999-2009’
        ‘the name of the issuing country’

    The design was chosen out of a shortlist of five by members of the public across the European Union voting online. It was created by George Stamatopoulos, a sculptor from the Minting department at the Bank of Greece.


    2012 '10 years euro currency' 2 euro coins: 10th anniversary of the issuing of the physical form of the euro currency. Citizens and residents of the euro area have selected the winning design for a new euro coin that will be issued by all euro area countries to commemorate ten years of euro banknotes and coins in January 2012. Using web-voting, they had five designs to choose from. Those designs had been pre-selected by a professional jury at the close of a design competition that was open to citizens from all euro area countries. The winning design symbolises the way in which the euro has become a true global player over the past ten years, as well as its importance in day-to-day life, with various aspects being depicted: ordinary people (the family of four), trade (the ship), industry (the factory) and energy (the wind power stations). The design was created by Helmut Andexlinger, a professional designer at the Austrian Mint.

    Coin features:
        ‘Euro sign 2002-2012’
        ‘the name of the issuing country’


    2015 '30 years of the European flag' 2 euro coins: In July 2015, the nineteen euro-area countries have jointly issued a commemorative euro coin to celebrate 30 years of the EU flag. This new euro coin will be issued by all euro area countries. A professional jury selected five coin designs from among the 62 designs submitted by euro-area mints. Euro-area citizens and residents were invited to select the winning design by an online public vote. The winning design, with 30% of the online vote, was by the hand of Georgios Stamatopoulos from the Bank Of Greece.

    Coin features:
        ‘the EU flag with 12 people 1985-2015’
        ‘the name of the issuing country’


    Other denomination commemorative coins: Other commemorative coins can be issued by member countries. For example: Germany has several 10 euro commemorative coins. These are NOT legal tender throughout the eurozone and therefore can be refused, especially by tourists!


    The Netherlands
    1 and 2 euro coins: Queen Beatrix is shown in profile with the words "Beatrix Queen of The Netherlands" in Dutch. The 12 stars are confined to half the circumference of the coin.

    1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cent coins: Queen Beatrix is shown in profile and the words "Beatrix Queen of The Netherlands" are written around the circumference of the coins.

    As of 2014, the second series shows the effigy of the new Head of State King Willem-Alexander.
    On the 1-, 2- , 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-euro cent coins the effigy is separated in two parts by an area with a vertical line. At the left of the vertical line, reading from bottom to top, the Dutch mint master mark, the text "Willem-Alexander" and the mint mark. At the right of the vertical line, reading from top to bottom, the text "Koning der Nederlanden". At the bottom left of the effigy the year of issuance "2014".
    On the 1- and 2-euro coins the design shows at the right side of the effigy three vertical lines. Between the first and the second line from the right, the Dutch mint master mark, the year of issuance and the mint mark. Between the second and the third line from the right the text "Willem-Alexander" and after the third line from the right the text "Koning der Nederlanden".
    The coin's outer ring depicts the 12 stars of the European flag.


    Germany
    1 and 2 euro coins: The traditional symbol of German sovereignty, the eagle, surrounded by the stars of Europe, appears on these coins.

    10, 20 and 50 cent coins: The Brandenburg Gate, a symbol of the division of Germany and its subsequent unification, is the motif used on these coins. The perspective of the design emphasizes the opening of the gate, stressing the unification of Germany and Europe.

    1, 2 and 5 cent coins: The oak twig, reminiscent of that found on the current German pfennig coins provides the motif for these coins.

    All coins: All coins have a letter A,D,F,G or J printed on the national side. These letters correspond to the cities where the coins were minted, respectively: Berlin, Munich, Stuttgart, Karlsruhe and Hamburg.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2006: Holstentor: The Federal Republic of Germany’s series of €2 commemorative coins is designed to increase the European public’s awareness of Germany’s federal structure. The coins will be issued in the order of rotation of the Bundesrat presidency (the Upper House of the German parliament representing the federal states) and will begin with Schleswig-Holstein in 2006. The national side of the commemorative coin depicts the Holstentor (the famous city gate in Lübeck).

    2 euro commemorative coin 2007: Schweriner Schloss: The coin features the Schweriner Schloss in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2008: Hamburgs 'Michel': The coin features the St.Michaelis in the Federal State of Hamburg.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2009: Saarlands 'Ludwigskirche': The coin features the Ludwigskirche Saarbrücken in the Federal State of Saarland.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2010: Bremen Town Hall: The inner part of the coin features the Town Hall of Bremen, with the Roland statue in the foreground. The word “BREMEN” is inscribed beneath the Town Hall to the right of the statue.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2011: Nordrhein Westfalen - Cologne Cathedral: The coin features the Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, officially Hohe Domkirche St. Peter und Maria), which is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne.


    France
    1 and 2 euro coins: A tree appears on these coins, symbolising life, continuity and growth. It is contained in a hexagon and is surrounded by the motto of the Republic "Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité".

    10, 20 and 50 cent coins: The theme of the sower is a constant in the history of the French franc. "This modern, timeless graphic represents France, which stays true to itself, whilst integrating into Europe".

    1, 2 and 5 cent coins: This shows a young, feminine Marianne with determined features that embody the desire for a sound and lasting Europe.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2008: French Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the second half of 2008: The coin is inscribed as follows: ‘2008 PRÉSIDENCE FRANÇAISE UNION EUROPÉENNE RF’. The mint mark and the mintmaster's mark are located below, to the left and the right respectively. The 12 stars of the European Union are shown on the outer ring.


    Austria
    2 euro coin: This shows a portrait of the radical pacifist Bertha von Suttner, a symbol of Austria's efforts over many decades to support peace.

    1 euro coin: This coin shows Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the famous Austrian composer, depicting Austria as a land of music.

    50 cent coin: This coin shows the secession building in Vienna, illustrating the birth of art nouveau in Austria and symbolizing the birth of a new age, representing a bridge to a new monetary era.

    20 cent coin: This coin shows the Belvedere Palace, one of the most beautiful baroque palaces in Austria. This was where the Treaty re-establishing the sovereignty of Austria was signed in 1955, making its name synonymous with freedom.

    10 cent coin: This depicts St. Stephen's Cathedral, one of the jewels of Viennese Gothic architecture and a popular tourist venue.

    5 cent coin: This shows alpine primroses, as part of a floral series, symbolizing a duty to the environment and the part Austria is playing in the development of a Community environmental policy.

    2 cent coin: This shows the edelweiss, again as part of a floral series, symbolizing a duty to the environment and the part Austria is playing in the development of a Community environmental policy.

    1 cent coin: This coin shows a gentian, as the last part of the floral series, symbolizing a duty to the environment and the part Austria is playing in the development of a Community environmental policy.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2005: 50th anniversary of the Austrian State Treaty: The centre of the coin shows a reproduction of the signatures and seals in the Austrian State Treaty, which was signed by the foreign ministers and ambassadors of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and France, and by Leopold Figl, Foreign Minister of Austria, in May 1955. The inscription ‘50 JAHRE STAATSVERTRAG' appears above the seals and the year of issue, 2005, below them. The vertical stripes in the background represent Austria's national colours (red-white-red). The outer ring of the coin features the 12 stars of the EU. From 2008 the national side will be changed to comply with new regulations. For instance the name of the issuing country needs to be indicated.


    Luxembourg
    All coins in Luxembourg will bear the profile of His Royal Highness the Grand Duke Henri. They will bear the year of issue and the word "Luxembourg" written in Luxembourgish ("Letzebuerg").

    2 euro commemorative coin 2004: Effigy and monogram of Grand-Duke Henri: The coin depicts on the left hand of the inner part the effigy of His Royal Highness, the Grand-Duke Henri, looking to the right, and on the right hand the monogram of the Grand-Duke Henri (special letter ‘H’ topped with a crown). The 12 stars appear in semi-circular form at the right of the monogram. The year 2004, surrounded by the mint mark as well as the engraver's initials, and the word LËTZEBUERG are written in circular form at the top of the ring. The words ‘HENRI — Grand-Duc de Luxembourg’ appear at the bottom of the ring.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2005: 50th birthday of Grand Duke Henri, 5th anniversary of his accession to the throne and 100th anniversary of the death of Grand Duke Adolphe: Depicted in the centre of the coin is the effigy of Grand Duke Henri, looking to the right and superimposed on the effigy of Grand Duke Adolphe. Above the effigies appears the legend ‘GRANDS-DUCS DE LUXEMBOURG’. The names ‘HENRI’, set above ‘*1955’, and ‘ADOLPHE’, set above ‘†1905’, are inscribed below the respective effigies. On the outer ring of the coin, the 12 stars of the EU surrounding the design are placed between the letters of the word ‘LËTZEBUERG’ and the year of issue, 2005, with the latter centred below the effigies and flanked by the letter ‘S’ on the left and the logo of the mint on the right.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2006: 25th birthday of Grand-Duke Guillaume, heir to the throne: The effigy of Grand-Duke Henri is superimposed on that of Grand-Duke Guillaume in the centre of the coin.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2007: Grand-Duke Henri and his palace: The coin bears an image of Grand-Duke Henri with his residential palace in the city of Luxembourg.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2008: Château de Berg: The coin shows Grand-Duke Henri and the ‘Château de Berg’, the official residence. .

    2 euro commemorative coin 2009: Grand-Duke Henri and Grand-Duchess Charlotte: The coin features Grand-Duke Henri and Grand-Duchess Charlotte.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2010: The coat of arms of Grand-Duke Henri: The coin features the effigy of His Royal Highness Grand-Duke Henri, together with his coat of arms that shows the Luxembourg and Nassau lions.


    Ireland
    All coins show the Celtic harp, a traditional symbol of Ireland, decorated with the year of issue and the word "Eire" - the Irish word for Ireland.


    Portugal
    1 and 2 euro coins: Here the country's castles and coats of arms are set amid the European stars. This symbolizes dialogue, the exchange of values and the dynamics of the building of Europe. The centerpiece is the royal seal of 1144.

    10, 20 and 50 cent coins: These depict the royal seal of 1142 as the centerpiece of the design.

    1, 2 and 5 cent coins: These show the first royal seal, from 1134, along with the word "Portugal".

    2 euro commemorative coin 2007: Presidency of the Council of the EU: The coin commemorates the Portuguese Presidency of the Council of the Europena Union.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2009: 2nd lusophone games: Commemorating the 2nd lusophone games in Lisbon.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2010: Centennary of Portugal: Commemorating the Portuguese Centennary.


    Italy
    2 euro coin: This depicts a portrait drawn by Raphaël of Dante Alighieri, housed in the Pope Julius II Wing of the Vatican Palace.

    1 euro coin: This coin shows the famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci, displayed in the gallery of the Academy in Venice, illustrating the ideal proportions of the human body.

    50 cent coin: This depicts the statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius on horseback.

    20 cent coin: This coin portrays a sculpture by Umberto Boccioni, leader of the Italian futurist school.

    10 cent coin: This commemorates one of the greatest triumphs in Italian art. It shows one of the most famous works in the world, the "Birth of Venus" by Sandro Botticelli.

    5 cent coin: This shows the Flavius amphitheatre, which Emperor Vespasian began building around 75 AD and Emperor Titus inaugurated in 80 AD.

    2 cent coin: This shows the Mole Antonelliana, a tower designed in 1863 by Alessandro Antonelli.

    1 cent coin: The Castel del Monte appears on this coin.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2004: Fifth decade of the World Food Programme: In the centre is the globe, tilted to the right and bearing the inscription ‘WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME’. An ear of wheat, an ear of maize and an ear of rice, the three grains representing the world's basic sources of nourishment, emerge from behind the globe. To the right of the globe is an ‘I’ superimposed on an ‘R’, denoting ‘Repubblica Italiana’, below which there appears a smaller combination of the letters U and P, the initials of the engraver, Uliana Pernazza. To the upper left of the globe is the mint mark ‘R’ and under the globe is the year – ‘2004’. The 12 stars of the European Union are positioned around the outer circle.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2005: Signing of the European Constitution: The centre of the coin features Europa and the bull, with Europa holding a pen and the text of the European Constitution. The words ‘COSTITUZIONE EUROPEA’ form a semicircle along the outer ring of the coin beneath the central image, while twelve stars are depicted on the remainder of the outer ring.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2006: XX Olympic Winter Games - Turin 2006: An image of a skier, a dynamic, curvilinear figure, is in the centre of the coin. Above him are the words ‘GIOCHI INVERNALI’ and to his left the location of the Winter Games is marked by the word ‘TORINO’ and an image of Turin’s landmark Mole Antonelliana building.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2008: 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: The coin depicts a man and a woman with an olive branch, an ear of corn, a cogwheel and some barbed wire – symbols of peace, food, work and freedom respectively.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2009: 200th anniversary of Louis Braille’s birth: The coin features text in braille and a hand reading it.


    Belgium
    All coins bear the image of King Albert II and a monogram - a capital "A" underneath a crown - among 12 stars, symbolizing Europe. The year of issue is part of the design, along with the year the coin was struck.
    From 2008 the national side indicates the issuing country with the letters BE.
    In 2014, Belgium introduced the new series of euro coins, which show King Philippe, his royal monogram "FP" and the country code for Belgium, "BE". The mint marks appear on either side of the year of issuance.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2005: Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union: The effigies of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg and King Albert II of Belgium are depicted in profile (from left to right) in the centre of the coin, above the year of issue, 2005. The engraver's initials, ‘LL', appear to the lower right. The two effigies and the date are surrounded by the outer ring bearing the 12 stars of the EU and the monograms of Grand Duke Henri on the left and of King Albert II on the right. The mintmarks appear between two stars near the bottom of the coin.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2006: Reopening of the Atomium: An image of Atomium-building in Brussels is shown in the centre of the coin.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2008: 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: The coin shows curved lines around a rectangle marked with the figure 60. The year ‘2008’ is inscribed above the rectangle and the words ‘UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS’ underneath it. The name of the country appears below the design in its three official languages.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2009: 200th anniversary of Louis Braille’s birth: The coin features the initials in braille and an effigy of L.Braille.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2010: Belgian Presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2010: The inner part of the coin features the commemorative logo, i.e. the stylised letters “EU” and “trio.be”. The central design is encircled by the words “BELGIAN PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF THE EU 2010” and the trilingual country designation ‘BELGIE BELGIQUE BELGIEN’.


    Finland
    2 euro coin: This shows cloudberries and cloudberry flowers.

    1 euro coin: A motif depicting two flying swans issued to commemorate the 80th anniversary of the independence of Finland.

    1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cent coins: These show a heraldic lion. The heraldic lion in different designs has been used in several Finnish coins over the years.

    All coins from 2008 have been changed to inlcude the letters FI to indicate the issuing country. The extra inscription is the size of a mintmark.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2004: Enlargement of the European Union by ten new Member States: The design describes a stylised pillar from which the sprouts grow upwards. The sprouts represent the enlargement of the European Union. The pillar represents the foundation for growth. Near the pillar there are the letters ‘EU’. In the upper part of the coin there is the year ‘2004’. Twelve stars, together with the year, surround the design.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2005: UN anniversary: The 60th anniversary of the United Nations and 50th anniversary of Finland’s membership of the UN. The inner part of the coin depicts a dove of peace made up of pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. Round the left-hand edge of the lower part of the inner circle is the inscription “ FINLAND - UN”.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2006: 100th anniversary of universal and equal suffrage: The inner part of the coin shows male and female faces separated by a line.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2007: 90th anniversary of Finland’s independence: The coin shows a nine-oar boat with rowers, symbolising collaboration. The year of issue, 2007, and the year of independence, 1917, appear above and below the image.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2008: 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Designed by sculptor Tapio Kettunen, the coin depicts a human being inside a heart and, underneath it, the inscription ‘HUMAN RIGHTS’. ‘FI’ for Finland, ‘K’ for the sculptor as well as the mint mark appear at the bottom of the inner part of the coin, and the year of issue, 2008, at the top. The 12 stars of the European Union are shown on the outer ring.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2009: 200th anniversary of Finnish autonomy and Porvoo Diet: The first Diet of Finland met in 1809 in Porvoo, so the coin shows a profile of Porvoo cathedral, where the opening ceremony took place, and ‘1809’ written in stylised numbering above.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2010: Currency Decree of 1860 granting Finland the right to issue banknotes and coins: The design of the inner part of the coin comprises a stylised figure of a lion, taken from Finland’s coat of arms, and the year of issue, i.e. ‘2010’, on the left, with the mintmark and a set of numbers symbolising coin values to the right thereof. Centred at the bottom edge is a reference to the issuing country, namely the letters ‘FI’. The coin’s outer ring depicts the 12 stars of the European Union.


    Spain
    1 and 2 euro coins: These show a portrait of King Carlos I de Borbon y Borbon.
    In 2015, the portrait on the €1 and €2 coins was changed to that of the new King Felipe VI following his father's abdication the previous year.

    10, 20 and 50 cent coins: Miguel de Cervantes, the father of Spanish literature, is shown on these coins, reflecting "the universality of the man and his work".

    1, 2 and 5 cent coins: The cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, a jewel of Spanish Roman art and one of the most famous pilgrimage destinations in the world is pictured on these coins. They show the monumental façade of the Obradoiro, a splendid example of Spanish baroque construction, started in 1667 by Jose del Toro and Domingo de Andrade. It was finished in the 18th century by Fernando Casas y Novoa.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2005: 4th centenary of the 1st edition of Cervantes’ 'The ingenious gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha': The centre of the coin features an image of Don Quixote holding a lance, with windmills in the background. To the left, impressed into the surface of the coin, is the word 'ESPAÑA', under which the mintmark 'M' appears. The 12 stars of the European Union are shown in the outer ring of the coin, with four of them impressed into the surface. The year of issue is indicated at the bottom.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2010: Cordoba's historic centre: The coin commemorates the first Spanish site – the historical centre of Cordoba – to be included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1984. It portrays the ‘forest of pillars’ of the Great Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba, one of the greatest and oldest examples of Islamic art in Europe. Built between the 8th and 10th centuries, the Mosque was later consecrated as a Christian cathedral and underwent successive transformations. The coin is the first in a new series dedicated to the Spanish sites included in the UNESCO World Heritage list, which will be issued every year starting in 2010.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2011: Court of the Lions, Granada: The inner part of the coin depicts the Court of the Lions in the Alhambra, the fortified castle in the city of Granada, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1984. It is the main court of the Nasrid Palace of the Lions, in the heart of the Alhambra, the Moorish citadel formed by a complex of palaces, gardens and forts in Granada, Spain. It was commissioned by the Nasrid king Muhammed V. Its construction started in the second period of his reign, between 1362 and 1391 AD.


    Greece
    2 euro coin: This coin depicts a scene from a mosaic in Sparta (third century AD), showing Europa being abducted by Zeus, who has taken the form of a bull. Europa is a figure from Greek mythology after whom Europe was named.

    1 euro coin: This coin shows an owl, copied from an ancient Athenian 4 drachma coin (fifth century BC).

    50 cent coin: Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), one of Greece's most prominent political figures, is shown on this coin. He was a pioneer in social reform, a renowned diplomat and played a key role in modernizing the Greek state and liberating Northern Greece and the Aegean islands.

    20 cent coin: This coin commemorates Ioannis Capodistrias (1776-1831), a leading national and European politician and diplomat who became the first Governor of Greece (1830-31) following the Greek War of Independence (1821-27).

    10 cent coin: Rigas-Fereos (Velestinlis) (1757-98) is featured on this coin. He was a forerunner and leading figure of the Greek enlightenment and confederation. He was a visionary of Balkan liberation from Ottoman rule.

    5 cent coin: It shows a modern sea-going tanker, reflecting the innovative spirits of Greek shipping.

    2 cent coin: This coin depicts a corvette, a type of ship used during the Greek War of Independence (1821-27).

    1 cent coin: This motif shows an advanced model of an Athenian trireme, the largest warship afloat for more than 200 years, dating from the time of the Athenian democracy (fifth century BC).

    2 euro commemorative coin 2004: Olympic Games in Athens 2004: The twelve stars of the European Union positioned around the outer circle surround the design of an ancient statue depicting a discobolus in his attempt to throw the discus. The base of the statue covers a small part of the coin's external ring (outer part). To the left is the logo of the Olympic Games ‘ATHENS 2004’ and the five Olympic circles, and to the right, one above the other, are the figure ‘2’ and the word ‘EURO’. The yearmark is written in split form around the star positioned bottom centre, as follows: 20*04 and the mintmark is above the athlete's head to the left.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2010: Anniversary of the Battle of Marathon: The coin commemorates the 2.500th anniversary of the Battle of Marathon. The centre of the coin shows a synthesis of a shield and a runner/warrior representing the struggle for freedom and the noble ideals that the Battle of Marathon stands for. The bird on the shield symbolises the birth of Western civilisation in its present form.


    Slovenia
    2 euro coin: This coin shows the poet France Prešeren and, along the edge, S L O V E N I J A.

    1 euro coin: This coin features Primož Trubar, author of the first book printed in Slovene.

    50 cent coin: 50 cent national side This coin depicts the Triglav mountain.

    20 cent coin: This coin shows Lipizzaner horses.

    10 cent coin: This coin features architect Jože Plecnik’s unrealised plan for the Slovenian Parliament.

    5 cent coin: This coin depicts a sower.

    2 cent coin: This coin shows the Sovereign Enthronement Stone.

    1 cent coin: This coin features a stork.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2008: 500th anniversary of Primož Trubar's birth: The coin shows an effigy of author Primož Trubar in profile. The inscriptions ‘PRIMOŽ TRUBAR’ and ‘1508 • 1586’ appear on the left, and ‘SLOVENIJA 2008’ at bottom right.


    2 euro commemorative coin 2010: Ljubljana's Botanical Garden: The coin commemorates the 200th anniversary of the opening of Ljubljana's Botanical Garden, the oldest scientific and cultural institution in Slovenia.


    2 euro commemorative coin 2011: 100th anniversary of the birth of Franc Rozman-Stane: The inner part of the coin bears a stylised image of Franc Rozman-Stane, general in the High Command of the Slovene partisan army and a national hero of Slovenia.


    Cyprus
    1 and 2 euro coins: These show a cruciform idol from the Chalcolithic period (3000 BC). This characteristic example of the island’s prehistoric art reflects Cyprus’s place at the heart of civilisation and antiquity.

    10, 20 and 50 cent coins: The Kyrenia ship, a trading vessel which dates back to the fourth century BC and a symbol of Cyprus’s seafaring history and its importance as a centre of trade.

    1, 2 and 5 cent coins: A moufflon, a species of wild sheep found on Cyprus and representative of the island’s wildlife.


    Malta
    1 and 2 euro coins: These show the emblem used by the Sovereign Order of Malta. During the Order’s rule over Malta, between 1530 and 1798, the eight-pointed cross became associated with the island and is now often referred to as the Maltese Cross.

    10, 20 and 50 cent coins: The Emblem of Malta, a shield displaying a heraldic representation of the Maltese national flag and supporting a mural crown that represents the fortifications of Malta and denotes a city state. The shield is bounded on the left by an olive branch and on the right by a palm branch, symbols of peace traditionally associated with Malta, forming a wreath tied at its base by a ribbon which carries the inscription “Repubblika ta’ Malta”

    1, 2 and 5 cent coins: The altar at the prehistoric temple complex of Mnajdra, built around 3600 BC on a low elevation overlooking the sea.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2011: Election of 1849: This coin is the first of a series of five coins to be issued over a period of five years to commemorate major milestones in Malta's constitutional history. This first coin commemorates the election in 1849 of the first Maltese representatives to the Council of Government advising the British Governor. Malta had been a British colony since the 1814 Treaty of Paris. The centre of the coin shows a hand putting a vote into a ballot box. The words "Malta – First elected representatives 1849" are shown above.


    Slovakia
    1 and 2 euro coins: These show a double cross on three hills, as featured in the national emblem of Slovakia.

    10, 20 and 50 cent coins: These coins depict Bratislava castle and the national emblem of Slovakia.

    1, 2 and 5 cent coins: These coins feature the Tatra Mountains’ peak, Kriván, a symbol of the sovereignty of the Slovak nation, and the national emblem of Slovakia.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2009: 20th anniversary of 17 November 1989: The coin shows a stylised bell with keys serving as clappers. It recalls the demonstration on 17 November 1989 when protesters jangled their keys to symbolise the unlocking of doors, an event which marked the beginning of the ‘Velvet Revolution’ in Czechoslovakia, as it then was.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2011: 20th anniversary of the formation of the Visegrad Group: The design of the inner part of the coin consists of the outlines of four central European states – the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia – with a superimposed composite “V” to designate the Visegrad Group, a regional alliance also known as the “Visegrad Four” or “V4” that was set up after a summit meeting of the Heads of State or Government of Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland in the castle town of Visegrád, Hungary, on 15 February 1991, mainly for purposes of cooperating in areas of common interest within the process of European integration.


    Estonia
    All euro coins: The design for the national side of Estonia’s coins is the same for all denominations. It features a geographical image of Estonia and the word “Eesti”, which means “Estonia”.


    Latvia
    1 and 2 euro coins: The 1 amd 2 coins features a Latvian folk maiden. This image was originally used on the silver 5 lats coin in 1929. The edge of the 2 euro coin bears the inscription DIEVS * SVETI * LATVIJU (GOD BLESS LATVIA).

    10, 20 and 50 cent coins: The 50, 20 and 10 cent coin show the large coat of arms of the Republic of Latvia.

    1, 2 and 5 cent coins: The 5, 2 and 1 cent coins show the small coat of arms of the Republic of Latvia.


    Lithuania
    All euro coins: Lithuania’s euro coins show the coat of arms of the Republic of Lithuania, Vytis, the country of issuance "LIETUVA" and the year of issuance "2015". The coins also feature the 12 stars of the European flag.


    San Marino
    2 euro coin: The government palace of San Marino. The front is decorated with the coats of arms of the eight castellets (administrative districts of San Marino).

    1 euro coin: The coat of arms of San Marino.

    50 cent coin: Monte Titano, a total view of all three towers of this fortress.

    20 cent coin: Saint Marino, the father of the small republic. He holds a model of the old town in his left hand and the coat of arms, which can be found on the 1 euro coin.

    10 cent coin: Basilica del Santo, built in 1826 in a classic style.

    5 cent coin: The La Guaita fortress with a bell tower.

    2 cent coin: The Liberty statue on the Piazza della Liberta in front of the government palace.

    1 cent coin: The Il Montale tower that contains an 8m deep 13th century dungeon.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2004: Bartolomeo Borghesi (historian, numismatist): The twelve stars of the European Union positioned around the outer circle of the coin and the issuing year ‘2004’, positioned bottom centre, surround the bust of Bartolomeo Borghesi. To the left of the bust is the inscription ‘Bartolomeo Borghesi’, and one above the other are the letter ‘R’ and the engraver's initials ‘E.L.F.’. To the right of the bust is the word ‘San Marino’.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2005: World Year of Physics: The motif of the coin is a free interpretation of the allegorical painting known as “La Fisica Antica”, which shows Galileo Galilei observing the stars. The name San Marino is inscribed round the upper half of the inner circle while the words ANNO MONDIALE DELLA FISICA appear in the lower half. The 12 stars of the European Union are depicted on the outer ring, alternating with a stylised representation of an atom which likewise encircles the coin.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2006: 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' death: The coin shows Christopher Columbus and three caravels.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2007: Giuseppe Garibaldi: The coin commemorates the 200th Birthday anniversary of Giuseppe Garibaldi.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2008: European Year of Intercultural Dialogue: The coin shows five human silhouettes symbolising the cultures of the five regions in Europe, together with the sacred texts of the different communities. The inscription ‘ANNO EUROPEO DEL DIALOGO INTERCULTURALE’ appears below the motif.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2008: European Year of Creativity and Innovation: The coin features a couple of items, including flasks and apparatus, symbolizing creativity and innovation.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2009: European Year of Creativity and Innovation: The coin features a couple of items, including flasks and apparatus, symbolizing creativity and innovation.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2009: 500th anniversary of the death of Sandro Botticelli: The coin commemorates the 500th anniversary of the death of Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (1445 – 1510), the Italian painter of the Florentine school who is better known as Sandro Botticelli or Il Botticello ("The Little Barrel").


    Vatican
    All coins in the John Paul II series show the profile of His Holiness John Paul II, Monarch of the Vatican City State.

    All coins in the Sede Vacante series show the heraldic arms of the Cardinal Camerlingo and of the Apostolic Camera (two keys in saltire surmounted by a canopy). this is the symbol of the vacancy of the See after the death of Pope John Paul II and before the election of Pope Benedict XVI.

    All coins in the Benedict XVI series show the profile of His Holiness Benedict XVI, Monarch of the Vatican City State.

    All coins in the Francis series, first issued in January 2014, show Pope Francis, Monarch of the Vatican City State.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2004: 75th anniversary of the founding of the Vatican City State: The inner part shows a schematic representation of the perimeter walls of the Vatican City with St Peter's Basilica in the foreground. Also in the inner part are the inscriptions ‘75 o ANNO DELLO STATO' and ‘1929-2004' as well as, in smaller letters, the name of the designer ‘VEROI' and the initials of the engraver ‘L.D.S. INC.'. The outer part of the coin features the twelve stars of the European Union and the inscription ‘CITTA' DEL VATICANO'.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2005: WORLD DAY OF YOUTH - Cologne 2005: This coin commemorates the World Day Of Youth and shows the Cologne Cathedral as well as the star of Bethlehem with the Italian inscription “XX Giornata Mondiale della Gioventù”.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2006: 5th Centenary of the Swiss Pontifical Guard: . The coin features a Swiss guard taking an oath of loyalty to the Pope. The inscription ‘GUARDIA SVIZZERA PONTIFICIA’ forms a semi-circle around the guard, while under the flag appears the name of the issuing state, ‘CITTÀ DEL VATICANO’.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2007: 80th Birthday anniversary of Pope Benedict XVI: . The coin bears an alternate image of Pope Benedict XVI and celebrates his 80th birthday aniversary.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2008: The Year of St. Paul – the 2000th anniversary of his birth: The coin depicts the conversion of Paul on the road to Damascus, which is visible in the background. Dazzled by a light from the sky, he falls from his rearing horse. To the left of the image is an inscription denoting the issuing country ‘CITTÀ DEL VATICANO’, and to the right the legend ‘ANNO SANCTO PAULO DICATO’, as well as the year ‘2008’, the mint mark ‘R’ and the artist’s name ‘VEROI’. The initials of the engraver ‘L.D.S. INC.’, Luciana De Simoni, appear beneath the image. The outer ring of the coin shows the 12 stars of the European Union.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2009: International Year of Astronomy: The coin features a couple of items, telescopes and celestial bodies, symbolizing astronomy.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2010: Year for Priests: The coin commemorates the Year for Priests, proclaimed by Pope Benedict XVI to run from of 19 June 2009 to 19 June 2010, that was concluded with an international gathering of priests attended by the pope. The coin features a shepherd pulling a lamb from a lion’s mouth.


    Monaco
    2 euro coin: The center of the coin depicts the right profile of H.S.H. The Sovereign Prince Rainier III. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, year and the hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars are divided between the right and left sides. Engraved on the edge of the coin a series of two stars repeated six times is positioned alternatively right side up and up side down.

    2 euro coin since 2006: The center of the coin depicts H.S.H. The Sovereign Prince Albert.

    1 euro coin: The center of the coin depicts the right profiles of LL.AA.SS. The Sovereign Prince and The Hereditary Prince Albert. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, the year and the hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars are divided between the right and left sides.

    1 euro coin since 2006: The center of the coin depicts H.S.H. The Sovereign Prince Albert.

    50, 20, 10 cent coins: The center of the coin bears the Grimaldi seal. It is a seal of the founders of Monaco, Admiral Rainier Grimaldi and Charles Grimaldi, the first Seigneur of Monaco. This seal has appeared since 1950 on the coins of H.S.H. Sovereign Prince Rainier III. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, the year and hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars are divided between the right and left sides.

    50, 20, 10 cent coins since 2006: The center of the coin bears the seal of H.S.H The Sovereign Prince Albert.

    5, 2, 10 cent coins: The center of the coin bears the Grimaldi coat of arms. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, the year and the hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars are divided between the right and left sides.

    5, 2, 1 cent coins since 2006: The coins still show the Grimaldi coat of arms, but the design has been slightly altered. The text Monaco is further from the edge.

    2 euro commemorative coin 2007: Princess Grace:. The coin bears an image of Princess Grace Kelly. This is the first 2 euro commemorative coin for Monaco.


    Andorra
    2 euro coin: The €2 coin shows the coat of arms of Andorra with the motto "virtus unita fortior" (virtue united is stronger).

    1 euro coin: The €1 coin features Casa de la Vall, the former seat of parliament and a building of cultural and historical interest.

    50, 20 and 10 cent coin: The 50, 20 and 10 cent coins show the Romanesque church of Santa Coloma.

    5, 2 and 1 cent coin: The 5, 2 and 1 cent coins show a Pyrenean chamois and a golden eagle.



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